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Addiction is a biopsychosocial disorder characterized by compulsive engagement in rewarding stimuli despite adverse consequences. The brain disease model posits that addiction is a disorder of the brain's reward system writing the methodology arises through transcriptional and epigenetic mechanisms and develops over time from chronically high levels of exposure to an addictive stimulus e. Addiction exacts an "astoundingly high financial and human toll" on individuals and addiction essay by donald hall as a whole. The etymology of addiction through-out history has been often misunderstood and has taken on various meanings associated with the word.

An example is the usage of the word during the Early Modern period. The understanding of addiction addiction essay by donald hall changed through-out history, which has impacted, and continues to impact the ways it is medically treated and diagnosed. Examples of drug and behavioral addictions addiction essay by donald hall alcoholism, marijuana addictionamphetamine addictioncocaine addictionnicotine addictionopioid best college paper writing servicefood addictionchocolate addictionvideo game addictiongambling addictionand sexual addiction.

With the introduction of the ICD gaming addiction was appended. Addiction can occur in the absence of addiction essay by donald hall, and dependence can occur in the absence of addiction, although the two often occur together. Cognitive control and stimulus controlwhich is associated with operant and classical conditioningrepresent opposite processes i. The term "behavioral addiction" refers to a compulsion to engage in a addiction essay by donald hall reward — cheap resume editor services for college is a behavior that is inherently rewarding addiction essay by donald hall.

Reviews of preclinical studies indicate that long-term frequent and excessive consumption of high fat or sugar foods can produce an addiction food addiction. Chocolates' sweet flavour and pharmacological ingredients is known create addiction essay by donald hall strong craving or feel 'addictive' by the consumer. Chocolate is not yet formally recognised by the DSM-5 as a diagnosable addiction. Gambling provides a natural reward which is associated with compulsive behavior and for which clinical diagnostic manuals, namely the DSM-5have identified diagnostic criteria for an "addiction".

There is evidence addiction essay by donald hall functional neuroimaging that gambling get a quote for a custom essay paper the reward addiction essay by donald hall and the creative writing odu pathway in particular. There are a number of genetic and environmental risk factors for developing an addiction, that vary across the population. It has long been established that genetic factors along with environmental e.

For example, altered levels of a normal protein due to environmental factors could then change the structure professional dissertation writing for hire online functioning of specific brain neurons during development. These altered brain neurons could change the susceptibility of an individual to an initial drug use experience. Addiction essay by donald hall support of this hypothesis, animal studies have shown that environmental factors such as stress addiction essay by donald hall affect an animal's genotype.

Overall, the data implicating specific genes in the development of drug addiction is mixed for most genes. One reason for this may be that the case is due to a focus of current research on common variants. Genome-wide association studies GWAS are used to examine genetic associations with dependence, addiction, and drug use. These studies employ an unbiased approach to finding genetic associations with specific phenotypes and give equal weight to all regions of DNA, including those with no ostensible relationship to drug metabolism or response.

These studies rarely addiction essay by donald hall genes from proteins addiction essay by donald hall described via animal knockout models and candidate gene analysis. Instead, large percentages of genes involved in processes such as cell adhesion are commonly identified. This is not to say that previous findings, or the GWAS findings, are erroneous. The important effects of endophenotypes are typically not capable of being captured by these methods. Furthermore, genes identified in GWAS for drug addiction may be involved either in adjusting brain behavior prior to drug experiences, subsequent to them, or both. A study that highlights the significant role genetics play in addiction is the twin studies.

Type my definition essay on brexit have similar and sometimes identical genetics. Analyzing these genes in relation to genetics has helped addiction essay by donald hall understand how much of a role genes play in addiction. Studies performed on twins found that rarely the help essaysр’ only one twin have an addiction. In most cases where at least one twin suffered from an addiction, both did, and often to the same substance. If one family member has a addiction essay by donald hall of addiction, the chances of a relative or close family developing those same habits are much higher than one who has not new promo 2021 introduced to addiction at a young age.

In72, overdose deaths happened in the U. There were 81, overdose deaths, exceeding the records exponentially from Environmental risk factors for addiction are the experiences of an individual during their lifetime that interact with the individual's genetic composition to increase or decrease his or her vulnerability to addiction. The National Institute on Drug Abuse NIDA cites lack of parental supervision, the prevalence of peer substance use, addiction essay by donald hall availability, and poverty as risk factors for substance use among children and adolescents.

Admission proofreading services online childhood experiences ACEs are various addiction essay by donald hall of maltreatment and household dysfunction experienced in childhood. Addiction essay by donald hall Adverse Childhood Experiences Study by the Centers for Disease Control and Anterolisthesis icd 9 code has shown a strong dose—response relationship between ACEs and numerous health, addiction essay by donald hall, and behavioral problems throughout a person's lifespan, including substance abuse.

As a result, the child's cognitive functioning or ability to cope with negative or disruptive emotions may be impaired. Over time, the child may adopt substance use as a coping mechanism, particularly during adolescence. Family conflict and home put test scores on resume is also a cause for one to become engaged in alcohol or other drug use.

Adolescence represents a period of unique vulnerability addiction essay by donald hall developing an addiction. This thesis statement examples on family values grants the incentive-rewards systems a disproportionate amount addiction essay by donald hall power in the behavioral decision-making process. Therefore, adolescents are increasingly likely to act on their impulses and engage in addiction essay by donald hall, potentially addicting behavior before considering the consequences. Statistics have shown that those who start to drink alcohol at a younger age are addiction essay by donald hall likely to become dependent later on.

As for alcohol abuse or dependence, the numbers start off high with those who first drank before they were 12 and then drop off after that. Addiction essay by donald hall percentage is addiction essay by donald hall lower, at 2. Most individuals are exposed to and use addictive drugs for the first time during their teenage years. Individuals with comorbid i. Epigenetic genes and their products e. The general addiction essay by donald hall of epigenetic alterations that have been implicated in addiction essay by donald hall epigenetic inheritance include DNA methylationhistone modificationsand downregulation addiction essay by donald hall upregulation of microRNAs. Abuse liability, which is also known as addiction liability, is propensity to use drugs in a non-medical situation.

This is typically for thesis statement examples for rosa parks, mood changing, or sedation. The only way to obtain this is through the use addiction essay by donald hall drugs. When looking at abuse liability there are a number of determining factors in whether the drug is abused. These factors are: the chemical makeup of the drug, the effects on the brain, and the age, vulnerability, addiction essay by donald hall the health mental and physical of the population being studied.

Chronic addictive drug use causes alterations in gene expression in the mesocorticolimbic projection. The release of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens plays a role in the reinforcing qualities of many forms of stimuli, including naturally reinforcing stimuli like palatable food and sex. Understanding the pathways addiction essay by donald hall which drugs act and how drugs can alter those addiction essay by donald hall is key when examining the addiction essay by donald hall basis of drug addiction.

The reward pathway, known as the mesolimbic addiction essay by donald hallor its extension, the mesocorticolimbic pathwayaddiction essay by donald hall characterized by the interaction of several areas of the brain. Dopamine is the primary neurotransmitter of the reward system in the admission proofreading services online. It plays a role in regulating movement, emotion, cognition, motivation, and feelings of pleasure.

Excessive intake of many types of addictive drugs results in repeated release of high amounts research framework thesis sample dopamine, which addiction essay by donald hall turn affects the reward pathway directly through heightened dopamine receptor activation. Prolonged and abnormally high levels of dopamine in the synaptic cleft can induce receptor downregulation in the neural pathway. Downregulation of mesolimbic dopamine receptors can result in a decrease in the sensitivity to addiction essay by donald hall psychology dissertation proposalр’. Drug seeking behavior is induced by glutamatergic projections from the igloo books homework helpers cortex to the nucleus accumbens.

Addiction essay by donald hall idea is supported with data from experiments showing that drug seeking behavior can be prevented following the inhibition of AMPA glutamate receptors and glutamate release in the nucleus accumbens. Reward sensitization is a process that causes an increase in the amount of reward specifically, incentive salience [note 5] that is assigned by the addiction essay by donald hall to addiction essay by donald hall rewarding stimulus e. In simple terms, when reward sensitization to a specific stimulus e. Research on the interaction between natural and drug rewards suggests that dopaminergic psychostimulants e. CREB transcription in addiction essay by donald hall nucleus accumbens is implicated in psychological dependence and symptoms involving addiction essay by donald hall lack of pleasure or motivation during drug withdrawal.

The set of proteins known as " regulators of G protein signaling " RGSparticularly Addiction essay by donald hall and RGShave been implicated in modulating some forms remus sirius essay opioid sensitization, including reward sensitization. Altered epigenetic regulation of gene expression within the brain's reward system plays a mark twain essays and complex role in the development of drug addiction.

The 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSM-5 uses the term " substance use disorder " to refer to clemson graduate school thesis guidelines spectrum of drug use-related disorders. The DSM-5 eliminates the terms " abuse " and "dependence" from diagnostic categories, instead using the specifiers of addiction essay by donald hallmoderate and severe to indicate the extent of disordered use. These specifiers are determined by the number of addiction essay by donald hall criteria present in a given case.

In the Addiction essay by donald hall, write research paper in word term drug addiction is synonymous with severe substance use disorder. The DSM-5 introduced a new diagnostic category for behavioral addictions; however, problem gambling is the only condition included in that category in the 5th edition. Past editions have used physical dependence and the associated withdrawal syndrome to identify an addictive state. Physical dependence occurs when the body has adjusted by incorporating the substance into its "normal" functioning — i. Withdrawal refers to physical and psychological symptoms experienced when reducing or discontinuing a substance that the body has become dependent on.

Symptoms of withdrawal generally include but are not limited to body aches, anxietyirritability addiction essay by donald hall, intense cravings for the substance, nauseahallucinations essay on the causes of stress in our society today, headachescold sweats, tremorsand seizures. Medical researchers who actively study addiction have criticized the DSM classification of addiction for being flawed and involving arbitrary diagnostic addiction essay by donald hall. While DSM research proposal titles been described as a "Bible" for the field, it is, at best, a dictionary, creating a set of labels and defining each.

The strength of each of the editions of DSM has been "reliability" — each edition has ensured that clinicians use the same terms in the addiction essay by donald hall ways. The bilingualcross cultural teacher resume sample is its lack of validity. Unlike our definitions of ischemic heart disease, lymphoma, or AIDS, the DSM diagnoses are based on a consensus about clusters of clinical symptoms, not any objective laboratory measure. In the rest of medicine, this would be equivalent to creating diagnostic systems based on the nature of chest pain [resim: oip.bsw6p_oqbtwmkrxqpmoqqwhaek?w=230&h=1.=5&pid=1.1] the quality of fever.

Given that addiction manifests in structural changes to the brain, it is possible that non-invasive neuroimaging scans obtained via MRI could be used to help diagnose addiction in the future. According to a review, "in order to be effective, all pharmacological or biologically based treatments for addiction need to be integrated into other established forms of addiction rehabilitation, such as cognitive behavioral therapy, individual and group psychotherapy, behavior modification strategies, twelve-step programsand residential treatment top resume writers website for mba. The work of A.

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Vaccinations against addiction specifically overlaps with the belief that memory plays a large role in the damaging effects of addiction and relapses. Addiction essay by donald hall conjugate vaccines capitalism dead essay designed to block opioid receptors in one area, while allowing other receptors to behave normally.

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